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柴油发电机的操作与管理

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  The operations and managements of diesel generator柴油发电机的操作与管理
 
  I. The purposes of operational training
 
  一、操作训练目的
 
  Through operational training students can master manual operations of starting and stopping diesel and manual operations about paralleling, transferring load and distributing load, and be familiar with operational and managing attentive items very well.
 
  通过操作训练,使学员熟练掌握柴油机的手动起动及停车操作,井能掌握发电机组手动并 车、负载转移及分配的操作,熟知操作及管理中的注意事项。
 
  II. The operational contents
 
  二、操作内容
 
  (1) Manual operations of starting and stopping diesel;(1) 柴油机手动起动及停车操作;
 
  (2) Manual operations about paralleling, transferring load and distributing load;(2) 发电机组手动并车、负载转移及分配操作;(3) Generator’s switch-off and its stop,(3) 发电机组的解列及停车。
 
  Ⅲ. Training equipment
 
  三、训练设备
 
  Type 4135-50 kW diesel generator-two sets; automatic electric station-one unit.
 
  自动化机舱柴油发电机组(4135-50 kW)两台,自动化电站一座。
 
  IV. Technical parameters of 4135-50 diesel generator四、4135-50柴油机技术参数
 
  Type:4153 G
 
  型号:4153 G
 
  Cylinder diameter: 135 mm
 
  缸径:135 mm
 
  Rated power:58. 8 kW
 
  额定功率:58. 8 kW
 
  Stroke: 140 mm
 
  冲程:140 mm
 
  Speed: 1500 r/min
 
  转速:1500 r/min
 
  Firing sequence : 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
 
  发火顺序:1 -3 -4 -2
 
  Compression ratio : 16. 5
 
  压缩比:16.5
 
  Cylinder number:4
 
  缸数:4
 
  Valve timing (crank angle):
 
  配气相位(以曲轴转角计):
 
  Inlet valve:
 
  进气阀:
 
  Open timing(BTDC) : 20°±6°
 
  开启始点(上止点前):20°±6°
 
  Closure timing(ABDC) : 48°±6°
 
  关闭终点(下止点后):48°±6°
 
  Maximum valve lift (mm): 14.5
 
  气门最大升程(mm) :14.5
 
  Cool clearance( mm) : 0. 25 ~0. 30
 
  冷车间隙(mm) :0.25-0.30
 
  Exhaust valve:
 
  排气阀:
 
  Open timing(BBDC) : 48°±6°
 
  开启始点(下止点前):48°±6°
 
  Closure timing(ATDG) : ±6°
 
  关闭终点(上止点后):20°±6°
 
  Maximum valve lifting( mm) : 14. 5
 
  气门最大升程(mm): 14. 5
 
  Cool clearance(mm) : 0. 30 ~0. 35
 
  冷车间隙(mm) =0.30 ~0. 35
 
  V. The processes of practical operation (for 4135-50 diesel generator)五、实操过程(以下使用机为4135-50型柴油机)1. Start and stop diesel engine
 
  1.柴油机的起动、停车操作
 
  (1) Preparations
 
  (1)起动前的准备
 
  ① Check up each part of diesel engine carefully and ensure all being in order, if abnormal matters are found, settle them immediately.
 
  ① 检查柴油机各部分是否正常,各附件连接是否可靠,并排除不正常现象。
 
  ② Inspect the connections of starting system’s electric circuit, meanwhile, examine storage battery’s capability and voltage to ensure all is normal.
 
  ② 检查电起动系统电路接线是否正确,蓄电池电量是否充足,电压值是否正常。
 
  ③ Add lube oil to crankcase up to required oil level.
 
  ③ 向油底壳内加注机油至规定油面位置。
 
  ④ Inspect cooling water system to ensure relevant valves have been opened.
 
  ④ 检查冷却系统,阀门是否打开。
 
  ⑤ Open and loosen air vents fixed in the combined fuel oil pump or loosen air plugs assembled on the top of fine filter, then use and press manual oil pump assembled in fuel oil pump to clear off air existing in the fuel oil system. Screw plugs tightly until fuel oil flows from them.
 
  ⑤ 使用组合式喷油泵上的手动泵,向燃油系统压注燃油,并旋松喷油泵上的放气螺钉,或 旋松燃油滤清器上的放气螺塞,排除燃油系统中的空气,直至放空气处一直流出的燃油无气泡 后,将放气螺钉或放气螺塞旋紧。
 
  ⑥ The first-use diesel engines or those having stopped over 5 days must be made 3 ?5 revolutions before starting, ensure that engine’s revolution is flexibility and no blocks or abnormal sound appear.
 
  ⑥ 对新机或停放5天以上未用的柴油机,起动前应先转动曲轴3 ~5转,确认转动灵活,无 卡阻或异常声响出现。
 
  (2) Start diesel engine
 
  (2) 柴油机的起动
 
  ① Diesel engine can be started smoothly under environment temperature being at 0℃.
 
  ① 该机可在不低于规定的环境温度下顺利起动,常温起动最低环境温度为0℃。
 
  ② Push the operational handle of governor to unload position, where the revolution is about 700 r/min.
 
  ② 喷油泵调速器操纵手柄推到“空载”(转速为700 r/min左右)位置。
 
  ③ Switch on storage battery, and then press the starting button to start diesel engine.
 
  ③ 接通蓄电池电源,按下起动按钮,使柴油机起动。
 
  If diesel engine can not be started within 12 seconds, release starting button; try and make the second start after 2 minutes ;如果在12 s内未能起动,应立即释放按钮,过2 min后再进行第二次起动;Diesel engine must be stopped after continuing start three times but failure, measures must be taken to settle the troubles.
 
  如果连续3次不能起动时,应停止起动,找出原因并排除故障后再进行起动。
 
  ④ Release starting button after starting diesel engine successfully, and then inspect each kind of parameter to ensure all is normal, especially lube pressure meter. Diesel engine must work at 600 -750 r/min some time and inspect each part to ensure all in order.
 
  ④ 起动成功后,应立即释放按钮,同时注意各仪表读数,特别是机油压力表,不得低于规定 数值,然后让柴油机在600 ~750 r/rnin的转速下运转一段时间,并检查柴油机各部分运转是 否正常。
 
  ⑤ Diesel engine allows to work at full of load unless water outlet temperature is higher 70T1, lube oil temperature higher 45℃, the pressure of lube oil higher 245 kPa.
 
  ⑤ 柴油机的出水温度高于70℃,机油温度高于45℃,机油压カ高于245 kPa时才允许进入全负荷运转。
 
  (3) Stop diesel engine
 
  (3) 柴油机的停车
 
  ① Normal stop
 
  ① 正常停车
 
  Unload the load from the electric net before generator engine being stopped, and then gradually adjust the governor’s manipulative handle to reduce its revolution till 700 ~ 1000 r/min, stop diesel engine after 3 ?5 minutes ’ work.
 
  停车前,先卸去负荷,让发电机退出电网,然后调节调速器操纵手柄,逐步降低转速至700 ~ 1 000 r/min,运转3 ~5 min后再拨动停车手柄停车。
 
  ② Stop in emergency condition
 
  ② 紧急停车
 
  In the event of emergency diesel engine must be stopped in order to avoid happening serious trouble. Diesel engine should be stopped immediately through pulling out emergency handle to stop (towards flywheel).
 
  在紧急或特殊情況下,为避免柴油机发生严重事故,可采取紧急停车。用手向后拨动紧急 停车手柄(向发动机飞轮端方向),即可达到停车目的。
 
  2. The operations of parallel manually, transferring load and distributing load2. 手动并车、负栽转移及分配的操作
 
  (1) Turn the “MANUAL/AUTO” switch to “MANUAL” position.
 
  (1) 将“手动/自动”转换开关转至“手动”位置。
 
  (2) Turn “SINGLE/PARALLEL” to “SINGLE” position.
 
  (2) 将“单机/井机”转换开关转至“单机”位置。
 
  (3) Turn the switch of “STAND/BY” unit to “0” position.
 
  (3) 将机组备用选择开关转至“0”位置。
 
  (4) After starting successively and running for a while in no-load revolution, then gradually add the enacting value of revolution until the frequency of an incoming generator is up to rating value (50 Hz) and voltage up to rating value (380 V); otherwise, please inspect the working condition of governor and voltage transformer.
 
  (4) 起动成功并空转运行一段时间后,逐渐增加转速设定值,直至待并机组的频率达到额 定值(50 Hz)、电压达到额定值(380 V);否则,请分別检查调速器和调压器的工作情況。
 
  (5) At this time, if the electric net is not supplying the power, please switch on main switch to supply electric recourse to the net; if the electric net is on power, the synchroscope’s switch turn to the incoming machine, adjust the enacting value of r/min according to the rotational direction of the synchroscope until the pointer rotates clockwise and slowly.
 
  (5) 如此时船舶电网无电,则可立即合上发电机主开关,向电网供电;如此时电网有电,则 应将同步表转换开关转至待并机组位置,视同步表的旋转方向调整转速设定值的大小,直至同 步表顺时针缓慢旋转为止。
 
  (6) When the pointer of synchroscope rotates to the position before green lamp appearing, switch on main switch of generator; the advancing time of switch-on is decided by the extent of personal skill, generally it is 30 ?50.
 
  (6) 当同步表指针旋转到出现绿灯之前一点,合上发电机主开关;合闸提前量视个人的熟 练程度而异,通常3°~5°。
 
  (7 ) After paralleling successively, the synchroscope must be shut off; then add load to the incoming generator gradually.
 
  (7) 并车成功后,应及时切除同步表,并逐渐増加待并机组的负荷。
 
  (8) According to the actual load in the net, each unit should be distributed the reasonable load (generally load is distributed at average) , adjust the oil rack to increase the oil capacity to engine; the available power will be increased, vice versa. Unavailable power is adjusted automatically through average-voltager.
 
  (8) 根据电网实际负载大小,合理分配各机组负荷(通常平均分配)。増加机组油门,会 提高本机组的有功功率,反之亦然;无功功率靠均压器自动调整。
 
  3. Generator’switch-off and its stop
 
  3. 发电机组的解列及停车
 
  (1) Transfer load that wants to switch-off to the running unit until its power is near to zero.
 
  (1) 将需解列机组的负荷转移至其他运行机组上,直至该机组的功率接近“0”为止。
 
  (2) Press the main switch to switch off the unit, then the unit is disconnected from the net.
 
  (2) 按下解列机组的分闸开关,将该机组从电网上解列;(3) Two kinds of stopping the engine. Method 1 is to close the controlling power for switch-off machine, at this time the enacting value is zero and engine stop immediately. Method 2 is to press the “START/STOP” button, and then the unit stops automatically after 15 seconds delay.
 
  (3) 停机操作有两种方法。方法一是将解列机组的控制电源关掉,此时该机组由于转速 设定值为“0”而立即停机;方法ニ是按下“START/STOP”按钮,则延时15 s后机组自动停机。
 
  VI. The operational and managing attentions六、操作及管理时的注意事项
 
  (1) Before starting, the system of cooling water, fuel oil and lube oil and air-compressed should be inspected to ensure all are in normal condition.
 
  (1) 柴油机起动前应分别对冷却水系统、燃油系统、滑油系统以及起动压缩系统进行检查,以确保各系统处于正常可用状态。
 
  (2) After start, engine must be running at the speed of 600 ?700 r/min for a while to prevent the cooling water and lube oil temperature being lower and bring the unnecessary accident or wear. Before stop, engine also should be running at lower speed for a while to let cooling water increases gradually to avoid the serious accident owning to the difference in temperature.
 
  (2) 起动后应立即检查滑油压力,一般进机压カ为0. 15 -0.45 MPa之间,检查各管路连 接处有无泄漏,倾听柴油机有无异常声响,保证柴油机无振动现象。
 
  (3) After start lube oil pressure should be checked up immediately and its value must be between 0.15 ?0.45 MPa, inspect the connections between pipes to ensure no leakage appearing, no abnormal sound happens, vibration is not happening.
 
  (3) 起动成功后应让柴油机在600 -700 r/min运行一段时间,防止冷却水及滑油温度过 低造成不必要的磨损或事故;停车之前应让柴油机在较低转速运行一段时间,保证水温及滑油 逐渐下降,避免温差过大造成事故。
 
  (4) In the event of the operations of parallel manually, transferring load, distributing load, the phenomenon of reverse-power and overload should be avoid.
 
  (4) 发电机组在进行手动并车、解列及负载转移时,应避免出现机组逆功率及超负荷现象。
 
  Ⅶ. Training requirements
 
  七、训练要求
 
  Students should be finished each kind of operation which is required in the operational contents independently, and master all attentive items of the equipment operations.
 
  在教师的指导下,学员应独立完成操作内容中规定的各项训练要求,并完全掌握操作时的 各种注意事项。
 
  Ⅷ. Reasoning subjects
 
  八、思考题
 
  (1) Please analyze the reasons that generating engine can turn, but always can not succeed to start.
 
  (1) 请分析发电柴油机在起动时,柴油机可以转动,但始终无法起动成功的可能原因。
 
  (2) Combination with practical devices, please analyze how to adjust the temperature for 4135 engine’s cylinder cooling water; how to adjust the lube oil pressure?
 
  (2) 结合实际设备,请分析4135发电柴油机缸套冷却水的调温方法、滑油压カ的调节方法。
 
  IX. The practical report
 
  九、训练实习报告
 
  The requirement and format oi practical report is compiled m another mode.
 
  实习报告的要求和格式另行成册。
 
  
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