I. The purposes of operational training
Through operational training students can master the basic operations of ship9 s main engine service systems and be familiar with operational and managing attentive items very well.
Ⅱ. The operational contents
(1) The composing of compressed air system and its operations and managements ；(1) 压缩空气系统的组成和操作管理；
(2) The composing of fuel oil system and its operations and managements；(2) 燃油系统的组成和操作管理；
(3 ) The composing of lube oil system and its operations and managements ；(3) 滑油系统的组成和操作管理；
(4) The composing of cooling water system and its operations and managements.
Ⅲ. Training equipment
Mam engine service systems in automatic room.
IV. Practical operational processes and managing points四、实操过程及管理要点
Main engine service systems are the basic composing part of propulsion unit, whether main engine service systems run well or not affects ship’s normal working. The basic requirement for main engine service systems is: systems supply regular mediums (oil, water, air and steam) , working parameters can be adjusted and work at permissive range, no leakage appears, in emergency, the stand-by systems should be prepared for. Main engine service systems include compressed air system, fuel oil system, cooling water system, lube oil system and other auxiliary system, such as steam system, bilge water system, ballast water system and fire water system. In here, only the former four systems are introduced.
船舶动カ系统是船舶推进装置的基本组成部分，动カ系统工作的好坏直接影响船舶的正 常营运。对船舶动カ系統的基本要求是:提供合格的工作介质（油、水、气、汽），工作参数可调 且工作在允许的范围内，无泄漏现象，应急情況下应有备用系统。动カ系统包括压缩空气系 统、燃油系统、滑油系統、冷却水系统以及其他補助系统（如蒸汽系统、舱底水系统、压载水系 统和消防水系统）。这里仅介绍前四个系統。
1. The composing of compressed air system and its operations and managements1. 压缩空气系统的组成和操作管理
(1) The composing of compressed air system(1) 压缩空气系统组成
The compressed air system in Automatic room is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 4, it includes air compressor, air bottle, the disposal equipment for compressed air and other accessories, air pipes. Compressed air system7 s function is to supply compressed air to start main engine and as the controllable air recourse and as other’s uses.
In this system, there are two sets air compressor which is cooled by fresh water, and they can substitute each other, under the air-pressure relay’s control, air compressor supplies compressed air to two air bottles automatically, air coming from air bottle divides into two paths, one deliveries to cylinder’s start-valve and air distributor to supply air to start the main engine; another is as the control air resource or as other’s uses after being reduced its pressure through the reducing valve and being cleaned through filtering equipment.
Another air compressor with fan’s cooling supplies air to control bottle automatically, in general, control systems and instruments that use compressed air are supplied by control bottle, in particular ,they also supplied by reducing equipment from main bottle.
(2) The operational and managing points
The start and stop of air compressor is controlled by the high/low air pressure in the air bottle, in order to make air compressor being used in any condition, several points about management should be attention:
① The oil quality in the crankcase must be inspected at interval. When air compressor works, compressed air inevitably leaks to crankcase, the hot leaking air meets with cold air, then condensed water will gather in the crankcase to cause lube oil’s emulsification and produce fake lube oil level, so lube oil level and oil quality should be inspected regularly, if necessary, renewed lube oil. The oil cup for cylinder must be added oil at interval.
① 定期检查曲柄箱油位和油质。由于空压机工作时，不可避免地要往曲柄箱中漏气，漏下 的热气遇冷后，会有水积聚在曲柄箱中,使滑油乳化和造成假油位。所以，管理中应注意定期检查油位和油质，必要时换新油。往气缸中注油的油杯也要注意定期加油。
② Check up and ensure the cooling condition of air compressor and cooler is normal.
③ Pay attention to listen the sound coming from machine, especially the airflow’s sound during starting and stopping, examine the validity of compressed air-water1 s separator at interval.
④ Pay attention to look about each meter’s(e. g. pressure meter, thermometer) reading to ensure they are in the permissive range.
⑤ Keep the pressure of air bottle above 2. 0 ?2. 5 MPa, regularly discharge waste water from air bottle.
⑤ 空气瓶中压カ保持在2.0 ~2.5 MPa之间，并定期放出瓶中残水。
⑥ Multi-using air valve must open during working and close after finishing using. All valves and pipe’s connections should be sealed very well.
⑦ Regularly checkout safe valve, pressure control valve and air bottle.
⑧ Regularly clean air filter, pay attention to discharge waste water in filter.
⑨ Regularly maintain air compressor and its control electric circuit.
2. The composing of fuel oil system and its operations and managements2.燃油系统的组成和操作管理
The diagram of fuel oil system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 3, the system includes fuel oil’s pumping and its storage, fuel oily s cleanness and its purify, fuel oil’ s management and its use.
(1) The operations of fuel oil’s pumping and its storage(1) 燃油系统的驳运操作
On board, the fuel oil9 s pumping system mainly includes oil tanks, the devices for pumping oil and oil pipes, the operations for pumping oil can be divided into the adding oily s operations and pumping oil between different oil tanks.
① The adding oil’s operation
Before adding, the adding oil’s scheme should be instituted, according to the scheme, relevant valves must be opened correctly and designate somebody to measure and test the oil quality (test water’s content); during adding, the speed of adding oil should be controlled and carry out the operations for changing oil tank according to the adding sequence required in the scheme. At the same time, the scheme and measure for preventing overflow must be ready.
② The operations of pumping oil between different oil tanks② 驳运：
Oil in barrel can be pumped to gas/heavy oil tank through gas/heavy oil transferring pump. Transferring between different tanks can be carried out through gas/heavy oil transferring pump，different type oil must not be mixed. At the same time, each tank should be assembled overflow glass mirror, overflow oil is collected to overflow tank, at the overflow tank, and high level alarm should be assembled. In order to transfer easily, each tank must be heated to suitable temperature according to different oil quality.
桶装燃油可分别经轻、重油驳运泵至轻重油沉淀柜。各储存油柜之间的转驳可以利用轻、重驳运泵进行，不同油品避免混淆。同时，各沉淀柜应设有溢流管镜，溢流汇总至溢流 柜，溢流柜高位设置报警信号。为便于燃油驳运，通常应根据不同油品的性质，适当对各油舱 柜进行加热。
(2 ) Fuel oil’s cleanness and its purifying(2) 燃油的净化处理
① The methods oi fuel on s cleanness and it’s purifying① 燃油的净化手段
The system of fuel oil’s cleanness and its purifying includes purifiers, fuel oil tanks and pipes’ net for oil. The cleaning and purifying principle includes cleanness and purifying with heavy mean, cleanness and purifying with filtering mean, cleanness and purifying with separating mean.
(a) Cleanness and purifying with heavy mean： After heating each oil tank in suitable temperature and settling for some time, heavy separation can carry out owing to the difference of special gravity between oil and water, but this mean is not a good effect because only water and bigger solid particles can settle and separate through this mean, its separating time is too longer, often need to discharge the waste water collecting at the bottom of oil tank.
(a) 重力净化：对各油舱柜进行适度加热和一定时间的沉淀，利用油水间的密度差可实现 重力分离。但这种分离效果并不好，只能分离水分和较大的固体颗粒，分离时间长，并要经常泄放净油水舱柜中的残水。
(b) Cleanness and purifying with filtering mean： Filtering separation is important method for fuel oil cleanness and it’s purifying, it is a good character of separating effect, the separating speed is quick, this separating method uses to separate solid particle, but not use to separate water.
(c) Cleanness and purifying with centrifugal separating mean: Centrifugal separation is the main method for fuel oil separation, its effect is very good, but it needs to add purifier and other devices. Purifier is a kind of cleanness equipment which is owned to all ships, the following factors that affect separating effect: separating speed, separating temperature. Engineer must learn about how to use and operate purifier.
(c) 离心分离：离心分离法是燃油分离的主要方法，分离效果好，但需增添分油机等设备。 分油机是各种船舶必备的一种燃油净化装置，影响分油机分离效果的因素有分油速度、分油温度等。轮机管理人员必须学会使用和操作分油机。
② The devices for cleaning and purifying and their uses② 燃油的净化设备及使用
In the automatic room, it has gas/heavy transferring pump, gas/heavy purifier, each is one set. Their function is to separate gas/heavy oil stored in settling tank, and then transfer them to gas/ heavy service tank. It can circulate the oil collecting in service tank. If the oil level of service tank is too high, oil will overflow to gas or heavy settling tank. Except for filters, there have heavy heaters to improve the separating effect, separating temperature is controlled by automatic system, the sludge separating from purifier is delivered to sludge tank.
自动化机舱设有轻/重油驳运泵，轻/重油分油机各一台/套。它们能将沉淀柜中的轻油或 重油净化处理后分別送至轻/重油日用柜，也可将日用柜的油进行循环净化。轻/重油日用柜 油位过高时，溢流至轻/重油沉淀柜。为提高净化效果，除设置各种滤器外，还设置重油分油机加热器，分油温度由分油机控制系统自动控制，分油机的油渣排至油渣柜。
There has low oil level alarm for gas/heavy service tank, the outlet of each tank has quick- closed valve.
(3) The managements of fuel oil system
① The uses and measure of fuel oil system① 燃油系统的使用和计量
Gas/heavy oil in service tank crosses the following path to main engine: quick-closed valve, oil booster, mix gear, flow meter, fuel oil circulating pump and fine filter, then returning oil crosses back-valve to diffuse and relief the pressure, then to collecting oil tank, oil coming from collecting oil tank is direct pumped out to the inlet of circulating pump, the flow is measure by flow meter.
轻/重油日用柜的油经速闭阀、三通转换阀、燃油粗滤器、增压泵、均质机、流量计、燃油循 环泵、雾化加热器、燃油滤器后进人主机。回油经背压阀缓冲释压后送人集油柜，集油柜出来 的燃油直接送入循环泵入口。流量计可实现准确计量。
The characters about this system:
(a) Use mixed gear to improve main engine combustion’s performance;(a) 使用均质机改善主机燃烧性能；
(b) Use flow meter to measure correctly；(b )使用流量计实现准确计量；
(c) Use viscometer to keep the viscidity constant；(c) 使用黏度计维持黏度恒定；
(d) There have two sets fuel oil booster and they can substitute each other automatically;(d) 设置两台燃油增压泵，互为备用，自动切換；(e) The system has the automatic alarm equipment for low pressure and high temperature of oil;(e) 系统设有燃油压カ低、油温太高自动报警装置；(f) Oil using by boiler and generator engine is designed for their self.
② The maintenances and managements of fuel oil system② 燃油系統的维护管理
The basic requirement for correct managements of fuel oil system is: Firstly，fuel oil can be pump to the inlet of fuel oil pump smoothly; secondly, the oil which pumps to fuel oil pump should meet the using requirements for engine.
(a) Fuel oil’s adding: While adding oil, the special connection must be used, control the adding speed, take safe measures to prevent oil overflowing and leaking.
(a) 添加燃油:添加燃油使用专用加油接ロ，掌握加油速度，采取安全措施，严防跑、冒、滴 漏油事故。应注意不同牌号的油品或同一牌号不同的油品不可混舱，避免出现沉淀。
(b) The selection of fuel oil heating temperature: Heating is a more important work, ship often uses steam to heat fuel oil; heating temperature is different according to different fuel oil viscosity’s requirements. Generally, heating temperature of fuel oil in the storage tank is 15 ~ 20℃, heating temperature of fuel oil in the settling tank is 50 ~70℃, heating temperature of fuel oil in the service tank is 70 ?80℃, heating temperature of atomizer heater is 100 ?150℃, in system all heater use electricity except for atomizer’ s heater.
(b) 燃油加热温度的选择:对燃油进行加热是ー项十分重要的工作。海船上多使用蒸汽 加热，加热温度随使用黏度要求而异，通常油舱的重油加热温度为15 ~20℃，沉淀柜的重油加 热温度为50 ~ 70℃，日用柜的重油加热温度为70 ~ 80℃，重油雾化加热温度为100 ~ 150℃。 燃油系统除燃油雾化加热器外,均采用电加热器。
(c) Pay attention to manage the processes of settling, separating and filtering: Regularly discharge waste water collecting in settling and service tank; clean fuel oil filter at interval. Check up the working condition of filter according to the pressure difference between fore and aft of filter. If the pressure difference is over normal value, it indicates that filter is blocked and needs to clean immediately. If no difference or only little pressure difference, it indicates that filter is damaged or assembles in wrong direction and need to dismantle to examine immediately.
(c) 注意沉淀、分离、过滤等净化环节的管理：定期对沉淀油柜和日用油柜进行污水释放，定期清洗燃油滤器。可根据燃油流经滤器前后的压カ差来判断滤器的工作情況，若压力差增大超过正常值，表明滤器已变脏堵塞，需立即清洗；若无压カ差或压カ差变小，则表明滤网破损 或滤器芯装配不对，需立即拆开检查。
(d) Inspect each tank’s quick-closed valve, oil-level meter and the condition of ventilated pipes： The quick-closed valve’s opening and closing condition should be examined to ensure it is normal and prevent false opening, regularly inspect the remote driver of quick-valve to ensure it is neatly, ventilating pipes are unblocked, oil-level meter’s indication is correct.
(d) 检查各油柜的速闭阀、油位表、透气管状态：应经常检查油柜出口的速闭阀开启状态 是否正常，防止假开；定期检查速闭阀远程传动机构是否灵活，透气管是否畅通，油位表指示是否正常。
③ The operations of changing oil
The operation of changing oil’s principle is to prevent oil temperature serious changing to avoid fuel oil pump’s plunge’s blocking or seizing. Operations of changing oil when entering into harbor (heavy oil to gas oil)：
(a) Firstly three-way transferring valve changes to gas oil position, then shut off heavy oil，connect to diesel oil.
(b) Close the heating valve of atomizer heater gradually. New oil and original oil is mixing and diluting in the collecting tank. Because of diluting, oil’s viscosity and temperature decreases quickly, at last diesel oil fill into oil pipe, low-pressure transferring pump, atomizer’s heater and returning oil pipe to meet main engine9 s demand.
(b) 逐渐关闭燃油雾化加热器加热阀。在集油柜中使原来的燃料油和新注入的柴油逐步 混合稀释。由于稀释，燃油黏度、油温下降很快，最后燃油管道、低压燃油输送泵、燃油雾化加 热器、回油管等全部充满柴油，以保证主机机动航行的需要。
Operations of changing oil when leaving harbor:
(a) Firstly heat heavy oil service tank to using state(70 ?80℃)and open steam valve of atomizer heater a little to heat diesel oil up to about 60℃.
(a) 首先必须给重油日用柜加热至使用状态（70 ~ 80℃），同时略微开启燃油雾化加热器 使柴油温度上升至60℃左右；(b) Turn three-way transferring valve to heavy oil position, shut off diesel oil and connect to heavy oil.
(b) 将三通转换阀转至“重油”位置，切断柴油,接进重油；(c) Heat gradually; heating temperature must be up to atomizing temperature before the time of consuming all diesel oil in the oil system.
(c) 逐渐加热，要在消耗完系统中柴油的时间内将燃油加热至燃油雾化所要求的温度 (100 ~ 150℃）。
④ Automatic control of fuel oil system
Automatic control of fuel oil system includes oil-level’s automatic control, automatic control of oil viscosity, automatic control of oil tank’s temperature, automatically substitution of fuel oil booster, automatic alarm for low oil pressure and automatically cleaning about oil filter. This part is introduced by teacher through practical teaching methods.
3. The composing of lube oil system and its operations and managements3.滑油系统的组成和操作管理
In automatic room, the lube system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. t. It is composing of lube oil circulating tank, filter, lube oil pump, lube oil cooler, heater, purifier and storage tank. Its task is to supply adequate, good oil quality to the moving parts and lubricate them. System’s function includes lube storing, lube cleaning and lube oil circulating use.
自动化机舱滑油系统如附录ー图1所示，主要由滑油循环柜、滤器、滑油泵、滑油冷却器、 加热器、分油机和储存柜组成。其任务是供应足量的、合乎质量要求的滑油，以帮助柴油机运 动部件的润滑。系统功能包括滑油储存、滑油净化和滑油循环使用。
(1) Lube storing
Oil in bulk can be directly pumped into lube oil storage tank or main engine circulating tank, lube oil storage tank is installed above 3 meter height to ensure lube oil directing into main engine, generator engine, gear case and rocker oil case. Lube oil storage tank has ventilating pipe and dipstick to measure conveniently.
桶装机油经手摇泵可直接驳入滑油储存柜或主机滑油循环柜，储存柜设置于机舱上部 3m高的位置，保证滑油可直接放人主机、副机、齿轮箱、摇臂油等滑油循环柜。储存柜设有透 气管和油尺，便于计量。
(2) Lube cleaning
In order to prove excellent oil quality, except that there have all kinds of inlet or outlet filters, purifier needs to use, transferring pump in purifier pump oil from circulating tank to heater, then into purifier, cleaned oil is delivered to circulating tank, that is to realize continuing by-pass separation. Separating temperature is controlled by automatic system through electric heater. In order to improve the separating effect, please pay attention to the following：
为保证工作滑油的良好品质，除设置常规的各种进、出口滤器外，还设置了分油机ー套，分 油机驳运泵从滑油循环柜中将滑油抽出，经加热器送人分油机，净油则送回循环柜，即实现所 谓的连续旁通分离。分油温度由分油机自动控制系统通过电热器进行自动调节。为提高分离 效果，应注意以下几点：
① In general, separating temperature enacts in 75 ?80℃ ;① 分油温度一般应设置为75 ~80℃；
② Select suitable specific gravity ring;② 应选择合适的比重环；
③ Select suitable oil separating capacity；③ 应选择合适的分油量；
④ Whether using water cleaning or not is decided by using condition.
(3) Lube oil’s use
Through lube oil pump, lube oil is pumped from circulating tank, then across cooler, constant temperature’s automatic adjustable valve and self-cleaning filter to main engine to lubricate. Constant temperature valve keeps lube oil temperature in permissive range, there has two sets lube oil pump and substitute each other automatically. When inlet oil pressure of engine is below 0.2 MPa, the stand-by pump will start automatically. Pe-lubricating pump of gear case is used to provide gear case’s pe-lubrication before engine starts, the lubrication of reducing speed gear case, generator engine, governor of main engine, turbocharger and rocker oil is used closing-circulation through oil case.
滑油泵从滑油循环柜抽出滑油,经冷却器、恒温自动调节阀和油反冲式自清洗机油滤器后 进人主机，对各润滑部位进行润滑。恒温阀使滑油温度控制在一定范围内,设置两台滑油泵，互为备用，自动切换。当柴油机进ロ滑油压カ低于0.2 MPa时，可自动起动备用泵组。齿轮箱 预供油泵用以保证減速齿轮箱起动前的预润滑，减速齿轮箱、副机、主机调速器、增压器和主机 摇臂油供给采用各自独立的油池构成闭式循环。
In this system, there has high oil temperature alarm and the safe equipment to decrease speed even stop main engine for its low lube pressure.
(4) The main points about maintenance and management(4) 维护管理要点
① Lube oil pressure and temperature’s adjusting: When engine runs，the lube oil pressure must be adjusted according to instructing-book, in general, it keeps at 0. 15 ~0.4 MPa. Lube oil pressure must higher than cooling water pressure to prevent sea water leaks into lube oil owing to cooler’s leakage. Lube oil pressure’s adjusting can be through by-pass valve to finish. Lube oil temperature must keep between 40 ?55℃ ( medial and high speed engine take the high limitation)， the maximum temperature should not over L ( medial and high speed engine is 70 ?90℃)，the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of cooler is general about 10 ?15℃Lube oil temperature’s adjusting can be through by-pass valve to finish.
① 滑油压力和温度的调节。运转中的滑油压カ应按说明书的规定进行调节，一般应保持 在0.15 ~0.4 MPa。滑油压カ应高于冷却水压力，以防冷却器泄漏时海水漏人滑油中,滑油压 力可借助滑油泵的旁通阀来调节。滑油温度应保持在40 ~55℃之间（中高速机取上限），最高 温度不允许超过65℃（中高速机为70 ~90℃），冷却器进、出口的滑油温差一般为10 ~ 15℃。 滑油温度一般是通过滑油冷却器的旁通阀来调节的。
② Stand-by and warming engine ： While stand/by, lube oil tank should be heat to increase lube oil temperature to 38℃ to be convenient the impurity separating, and prevent sludge settling on the surface of cooler’s pipe. In cold weather pe-heat lube oil may alleviate the load of lube oil pump to be convenient the working of pump. After heating start lube oil pump to let oil circulate in the system to prevent dry-friction while starting.
② 备车暖机。备车时应对滑油柜加温，使滑油温度提高到38℃左右，以便杂质分离并防 止油泥沉积在冷却器管壁上。冷天预热滑油，还可以减轻滑油泵的负荷,有利于滑油栗的エ 作。加热后即可开动滑油泵，使滑油在系统中循环，防止柴油机在起动时出现干摩擦。
③ Oil level in circulating tank should be often inspected and makeup lube oil to keep adequate oil. While working oil level9 s sudden decreasing possibly cause by oil case shell or pipes’ leakage. Oil level’s sudden increasing possibly cause by water entering into cooling system.
③ 应经常检查循环柜油位，及时补充滑油，使之保持足够的油量。运转中，油位突然降低 可能是油底壳或管系漏泄引起。油位突然升高则可能是冷却系统中的水漏人所致。
④ Regularly take oil sample to test and analyze: When take oil sample the recorder should be listed, the recording contents include time of tanking oil sample, address of oil sample, engine power and revolution, lube oil pressure and its temperature, the time between two renewing, type of fuel oil, bearing corrosion and its wear. Alter long and repeating work, the principle of lube oil deterioration can be found, suitable year of using lube oil may be sure.
④ 应定期取油样化验分析。取样时要做记录，记下取样的时间、取样地点、柴油机的功率 和转速、滑油压カ和温度、从更换新油到取样时柴油机的运转时间、所用的燃油以及轴承的腐 蚀和磨损等情况。经过长期且反复的工作,就可找出滑油变质的规律，从而正确地确定滑油使 用年限。
⑤ Under sail, regularly use purifier to carry out the process of continuing by-pass separation.
⑥ Regularly inspect and clean lube oil cooler.
4. The composing of cooling water system and its operations and managements4.冷却水系统的组成和操作管理
In automatic room, cooling water system is shown in Appendix 1 fig. 2. The whole cooling water includes fresh-water cooling system, high-temperature sea water cooling and low-temperature sea water cooling. Fresh-water cooling system is used to cool main engine and generator engine, high-temperature sea water cooling system is used to cool main engine fresh-water cooler, low-temperature sea water cooling system is used to cool main engine lube oil cooler, air cooler, cooler for oil injector, lube oil cooler of gear case, condenser of boiler, air compressor and generator engine fresh-water cooler.
自动化机舱冷却水系统如附录ー图2所示。整个冷却系统包括淡水冷却系统、高温海水 冷却系统、低温海水冷却系统。淡水冷却系统用于冷却柴油主机、发电副机等；高温海水冷却 系统用于冷却主机淡水冷却器；低温海水冷却系统用于冷却主机滑油冷却器、主机空气冷却 器、主机喷油器冷却器、減速齿轮箱滑油冷却器、锅炉冷凝器、空压机和副机淡水冷却器等。对 海/淡水冷却系统及其操作管理的基本要求是：保证足够而连续的冷却水量、恰当的冷却水温 度和合适的冷却液体。
(1) The composing of cooling water
Fresh-water system: Main engine fresh-water is composing of expansive water case, fresh-water circulating pump and plate-heater, the whole system is as a closing-circulating, through this system, the treatment and test about fresh-water may be carried out. Temperature of fresh-water is controlled by frequency conversion in programmed.
An expansive water case is used by main engine and generator engine, each is consisted in closing circulation, the fresh-water’s temperature of generator is controlled be constant-temperature. The fresh-water can be used to warm up main engine through warming valve before main engine start.
High temperature sea water circulating system: High temperature sea water is used to cool mam engine fresh-water cooler, then across cooling water tower return into high-temperature water pond. The capacity of high sea water pump is automatically adjusted by frequency conversion controlled by computer according to fresh-water temperature of main engine. Cooling can be carried out through opening inlet and outlet valve in the water pond.
Low temperature sea water system ： Low temperature sea water is used to cool air cooler for main engine, main engine lube oil cooler, cooler of reducing gear case, boiler* s condenser, cooler of generator engine and cooler of fuel oil injector, after low temperature cooling water tower, return to pond and consist in closing-circulation.
低温海水冷却系统：低温海水用于冷却主机空气冷却器、主机滑油冷却器、減速齿轮箱滑 油冷却器、锅炉冷凝器、副机淡水冷却器、主机油头冷却器，并经低温海水冷却塔后,流回冷却 水池构成闭式循环。
There has a set general pump which is as the stand-by pump for low temperature sea water pump or main engine fresh water pump.
(2) Maintenances and managements for cooling system(2) 冷却系統的维护管理
① Adjust to ensure the parameters of cooling system to keep in normal range.
(a) The outlet pressure of fresh-water pump must be adjusted in normal working range; generally, fresh-water pressure should be higher than sea water pressure.
(b) Fresh-water temperature must be adjusted in normal working range; generally the outlet temperature of fresh-water is adjusted to the high limitation.
(c) Control and keep temperature constant by using fresh-water frequency conversion system, and saving energy resource.
(d) Inspect the flow condition of each cylinder (include the flow condition of each return water for expansive case) , if cooling water capacity need to adjust, the outlet valve of fresh-water pump may be adjusted, but slowly adjusting, inlet valve should be opened in full-open position. Each vent in cooler must often be inspected.
(d) 检查各缸冷却水的流动情况（包括膨胀水箱各回水管的流动情況），如需调整冷却水 流量，应调整淡水泵的出口阀，同时注意调节速度，应尽量缓慢，淡水泵的进口阀应始终处于全开位置上。各冷却器的放气旋塞应经常检查。
(e) When cylinder water is fluctuating and adjusts ineffectually, generally it is caused by air in the system. The trouble’s causes should be examined as soon as possible.
(e) 当发现气缸冷却水压波动而调节无效时，通常是由于系统中存有气体造成，应尽快查 明原因并消除。
② Regularly check up the variety of expansive case and fresh-water circulating tank. If water level decreases quickly, the trouble’s causes should be examined as soon as possible and settle. When stand/by main engine, warm-valve should be closed and start fresh-water pump to let water circulate in the system for 15-30 minutes, system clear off air, the warm-cylinder temperature is a- bout45T：.
② 定期检查膨胀水箱和淡水循环柜的水位变化。如水位降低过快，应迅速查明原因加以 解決。备车时，应将暖缸阀关闭并开动淡水泵，让淡水在系统内循环15 ~30 min，进行冷却系 统驱气，暖缸温度通常在45℃左右。
③ After stopping main engine, let cooling water continue to circulate in the system for 20 - 30 minutes to decrease cylinder temperature gradually for not only preventing lube oil film evaporating or carbon but also decreasing thermal stress.
③ 停车后,让冷却水继续在系统内循环20 ~30 min，使气缸温度逐渐下降，既可防止缸壁表面的滑油油膜蒸发或结炭，又可減少热应力。
④ Treatments for cooling water: Generally cylinder cooling water must be tested and analyzed, treatments by using medicine should be carried out according to the testing result and cooling treating medicine, the process must meet with relevant technical data.
④ 冷却水的处理。主机缸套冷却水通常应定期化验分析,根据化验结果和所使用的冷却 水处理剂，按有关技术资料进行投药处理。
⑤ Clean for cooler and filter: The working condition of filter should be checked up according to fore and aft pressure difference of filter, then decide whether filter need to clean or not; clean cooler according to cooling result, at the same time change the zincs in cooler.
⑤ 冷却器和滤器的清洗。根据滤器前后压差判断其工作情况并视情清洗滤器;根据冷却 器的冷却效果适时清洗冷却器，同时更换冷却器锌块。
V. Training requirements
Students should be finished each kind of operation which is required in the operational contents independently, and master all attentive items of the equipment operations.
VI. Reasoning subjects
(1) Combination with practical devices in automatic room, please analyze how to correctly adjust and settle the following problems：
(1) The correct settling measures for cylinder cooling water being higher and circulating lube oil temperature being higher.
① 缸套冷却水温度过高、系统油油温过高的正确解决方法；(2) The correct settling measures for cylinder cooling water outlet pressure being lower and circulating lube oil inlet pressure being lower.
(2) Combination with practical devices, please analyze the reasons that the meter of main fresh-water pump’s outlet pressure is seriously fluctuant, please bring forward settling measures.
(2) 结合实际设备，请分析主淡水泵出口压カ表指针出现严重波动的可能原因，并提出解 决的措施。
Ⅶ. The practical report
The requirement and format of practical report is compiled in another mode.