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电力机车组成-技术资料翻译

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Parts of Electric Locomotive
电力机车组成
The diagram (Fig.2.2) shows an AC electric locomotive, i. e., a locomotive collecting AC power from overhead line. The current passes directly from the pantograph (or shoe) to the main and auxiliary inverters.
图2.2所示是交流电力机车,即从上部接触网供应交流电的机车。电流直接从受电 弓或者集电靴传人主/辅逆变器。
Electronic Controls
电气控制
Almost every part of the modern locomotive equipment uses electronic control. They are usually collected in a control cubicle near the cab for easy access. The controls usually include a maintenance management system which can be used to download data to a portable or hand-held computer.
几乎现代机车设备的每一个零件都有电气控制,这些设备集中放置在司机室附近 的控制柜内。这种控制通常通过将数据下载到便携式或者手提电脑中的维修管理系统来实现。
Pinion/Gear
牵引齿轮变速机构
The traction motor drives the axle through a reduction gear of a range between 3 to 1 (freight) and 4 to 1 (passenger).
牵引齿轮变速机构牵引电机通过减速齿轮驱动车轴,货车机车传动比为3: 1,客运机车传动比为4:1。
Asynchronous Motor
异步电动机
Modern traction motors use three phase AC electrical supply and this favoured design can be used on DC and AC electrified railways and electric locomotives, which are equipped with suitable control electronics.
专门用于现代列车牵引系统的三相交流牵引电动机,也可用于具有相匹配的控制电 子设备的直流和交流电气化线路和电力机车上。
Axle Brush
轴刷
The means by which the power supply circuit is completed with the substation once power has been drawn on the locomotive. Current collected from the overhead line or third rail is returned via the axle brush and one of the running rails.
这意味着一旦能量传输至机车,变电所完成电能的供应。电流经接触网或第三轨并 经轴刷和一条走行钢轨回流。
 
Battery
蓄电池
All trains are provided with a battery for start-up current and for supplying essential circuits, such as emergency lighting in the case of the line supply fails. The battery is usually connected across the DC control supply circuit.
所有列车都配有蓄电池,以提供启动电流及作必须供电(如供电线故障时作应急照 明)蓄电池通常与直流控制电路相连接。
Circuit Breaker
断路器
An electric train is almost always provided with some sort of circuit breaker to isolate the power supply when there is a fault, or for maintenance. On AC systems they are usually on the roof near the pantograph. There are two types—the air blast circuit breaker and the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB). The air or vacuum part is used to extinguish the arc when two tips of the circuit breaker open.
当发生故障或者维修时,电力机车几乎都用断路器隔离电力供应。在交流系统中, 断路器通常设在受电弓附近的车顶上。断路器有两种类型:压缩空气断路器和真空断路 器。空气或真空部分用于断路器两个触点分开时灭弧。
Converter
转换器
Converter is a generic term for any solid state electronic system for converting alternating current to direct current or vice versa. Where an AC supply has to be converted to DC it is called a rectifier and where DC is converted to AC it is called an inverter. The word originated in the US but is now common elsewhere.
转换器是指将交流电变为直流电或者反之的任何固态电气系统的通用术语。将交流 电变为直流电的叫整流器,将直流电变为交流电的叫逆变器。该词起源于美国,现在通 用于世界各地。
Cooling Fans
冷却风扇
To keep the thyristors and other electronic power systems cool, the interior of a modern locomotive is equipped with an air management system, electronically controlled to keep all systems operating at the correct temperature. The fans are powered by an auxiliary inverter producing 3-phase AC at about 400 V.
为了对半导体元件和其他电气系统进行冷却,现代机车内部都装有空气管理系统, 用电气控制来确保所有系统在正常温度下运行。由辅助逆变器为风扇提供400V的三相 交流电。
 
DC Link
中间直流环节
DC link is used on modem electronic power systems between the single phase rectifier and the 3-phase inverter. It is easy to convert the single phase AC from the overhead line to the 3-phase required for the motors by rectifying it to DC and then inverting the DC to 3-phase AC.
直流连接用于现代电气动力系统的单相整流器和三相逆变器之间。通过将接触网上 的单相交流电整流成直流电,然后再逆变成三相交流电,就很容易地将单相交流电转换 成牵引电机使用的三相交流电。
Inverter
逆变器
Inverter is a type of electronic power device mounted on trains to provide alternating current from direct current. It is popular nowadays for DC railways to allow three phase drive or for auxiliary supplies which need an AC supply.
逆变器是安装在机车上将直流电转换为交流电的电气装置。目前,直流供电铁路通 常允许使用三相驱动或者为需要亦采用交流电的辅助装置供电。
Line Breaker
线路断路器
Line breaker is a type of electro-mechanical switch in a traction motor power circuit used to activate or disable the circuit. It is normally closed to start the train and remains closed all the time while power is required. It is opened by a command from the driving controller, no-volts detected, overload detected and wheel spin or slide detected. It is linked to the overload and no-volt control circuits so that it actually functions as a protective circuit breaker.
线路断路器是用于接通或断开牵引电机供电线路的电子一机械开关。它在列车启动 时闭合,并在全部供电时间里持续闭合。在发现失压、过载或者轮对空转或滑行时,由 司控器命令将其断开。断路器连人过载和失压控制电路中作为保护电路。
Master Controller
司控器
Master controller is driver’s power control device located in the cab. The driver moves the handle of master controller to apply or reduce power of the locomotive or train.
司控器安装在司机室内的司机动力控制装置。司机扳动司控器手柄来调节机车或列 车的动力大小。
Motor Blowers
牵引电机通风机
Traction motors on electric locomotives get very hot and, to keep their temperature at a reasonable level for long periods of hard work, they are usually fitted with electric fans called motor blowers. On a modern locomotive, they are powered by an auxiliary 3-phase AC supply of around 400 V supplied by an auxiliary inverter.
为了使电力机车上的牵引电机在长时间的满负荷工作过程中,保持在适当的温度水平,它通常与叫做电机通风机的电动风扇配合使用。在现代机车上,由一台辅助逆变器 提供辅助三相400 V的交流电给牵引电机通风机供电。
Rectifier
整流器
Rectifier is a type of converter consisting of thyristors and diodes is used to convert AC to DC. A modern locomotive will usually have at least two rectifiers, one for the power circuits and one or more for the auxiliary circuits.
整流器是一种由半导体和二极管组成的将交流电转换为直流电的转换器。现代机车 至少使用两个整流器,一个用于主电路,一个或者多个用于辅助电路。
Air Compressor
空气压缩机
The air compressor is required to provide a constant supply of compressed air for the locomotive and train brakes. The compressor is usually electrically driven and can therefore can be mounted anywhere.
空气压缩机用来为机车和列车制动提供稳定的压缩空气供应。空气压缩机通常是电 驱动,因此可以安装在其他位置。
Sand Box
砂箱
Locomotives always carry sand to assist adhesion in bad rail conditions, sand is often provided on multiple unit train too.
在轨道条件欠佳的情况下,机车总是携带砂子来提高钢轨黏着,动车组通常也安装 了砂箱。
Synchronous Motor
同步电动机
Synchronous motor is a type of traction motor where the field coils are mounted on the drive shaft and the armature coils in the housing, which is inverse of normal practice. This is a single-phase machine controlled by simple inverter. Now it is superseded by the asynchronous motor.
牵引电机的磁场线圈安装在转子上,电枢绕组安装在定子(机壳、外壳)上,这 与正常情况正相反。它是一种由简单逆变器控制的单相机械,现在已经被异步电动机 取代。
Transformer
变压器
Transformer is a set of windings with a magnetic core used to step down or step up a voltage from one level to another. The voltage differences are determined by the ratio between turn number of windings on the input side and the output side. An essential requirement for locomotives and trains using AC power is that line voltage has to be stepped down before being used on the train.
变压器是一套用于降低或者升高电压的带铁芯绕组6电压的不同取决于输人绕组与 输出绕组的匝数比例。交流电力机车或者列车必须将网压降低后方可使用。
Pantographs
受电弓
Current is collected from overhead lines by pantographs, as shown in Fig.2.3. Pantographs are easy in terms of isolation—you just lower the pan to disconnect the power supply to the vehicle. However, it is complicated to operate.
受电弓从接触网上获取电能。你只要降低受电弓滑板,就可以很容易的断开车辆电力供应,但是操作起来很复杂。
Since the pantograph is usually the single point power contact for the locomotive or power car, it must maintain good contact under all running conditions. The higher the speed, the more difficult the maintenance of good contact. We have already noticed the problem (above) of wave formed on the wire caused by a pantograph moving at high speed.
由于电力机车或者动车组的受电弓通常是点接触,所以必须在任何运行条件下保持 良好的接触。速度越高,保持良好的接触越困难。我们已经注意到由于受电弓高速移动 而产生接触网波动的问题了。
Pantograph contact is maintained either by spring or air pressure, compressed air pressure is preferred for high speed operation. The pantograph is connected to a piston in a cylinder and air pressure in the cylinder maintains the pantograph in the raised condition.
用弹簧或空气压力保持受电弓与接触网的接触。压缩空气压力是高速运行时的首选。受电弓连接在气缸内的活塞上,气缸内的空气压力使受电弓维持在升弓状态。
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